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The United Nations, declared 2016 as “International Year of Pulses” (IYP). Pulses are an integral part of many diets across the globe and they have great potential to improve human health, conserve our soils, protect the environment and contribute to global food security. India is the largest producer (25% of global production), consumer (27% of world consumption) and importer (14%) of pulses in the world. The study analyzed the production trends, growth rates, and instability its effect on food security, self-sufficiency, economic, trade, environmental and nutritional impact and the impact of government programs. Demand and supply, CAGR, Instability Index, Export import price elasticities of commodities & countries were estimated. India, the second most populous country in the world, leads all nations in terms of area and production of pulses and straggle in productivity, globally. The results show that during 2000-01 to 2021-22, India demands more than supply indicating food insecurity in pulses. The per capita availability of pulses has decreased considerably. The area under pulses is stagnant except for few years and the production and productivity has been increasing. The steep rise in production could be due to the technological and government schemes and programs contribution. Gram contributes the single largest share of 43% in India’s total pulses production and in export basket of pulses registering 84.87% in 2015-16. Tur is procured in the maximum quantity at 590 MT by NAFED and the least procured is Urad at 11 MT by SFAC. The impact of increase in the production of pulses in 2016 -17 resulted in the decrease in the growth rate of imports. USA, Canada, UK and some of the Asian countries were major importers from India. It was observed that, India has comparative advantage in pulses with export prices being high over the import prices. Among the pulses, more export elasticity was noticed in peas (2.36%) followed by gram, lentil and pigeon pea. The terms of trade of India with other countries found to be improved for all pulses crops. Pulses improve the sustainability of cropping systems and are environmental friendly. Pulses in the diet are a healthy inclusion to meet dietary recommendations and is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The government programs, schemes impacted on increase in area and productivity of pulses. The study suggests that targeted research to be in pulses through “sustainable intensification” and focus on beans, chickpeas, and lentils which contributes to trade in future to meet the demand of pulses nationally and globally. Government procurement must be on war footing to tackle the rising gap between the demand and supply of pulses along with the promotion of trade through SEZ’s.